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Assignment on Imporance of Online Learning for Education Development

Number of Words : 4091

Number of References : 62

Contents

 Introduction
 Terminologies for Online Learning
 Benefits of Online Learning
 Designing Online Learning Materials
 Schools of Learning
 Behaviorist School of Learning
 Implications for Online Learning
 Cognitivist School of Learning
 Cognitive School of Learning
 Constructivist School of Learning
 Conclusion
 References

Description

There is ongoing debate about whether it is the use of a particular delivery technology or the design of the instruction that improves learning (Clark, 2001; Kozma, 2001). It has long been recognized that specialized delivery technologies can provide efficient and timely access to learning materials; however, Clark (1983) has claimed that technologies are merely vehicles that deliver instruction, but do not themselves influence student achievement. As Clark notes, meta-analysis studies on media research have shown that students gain significant learning benefits when learning from audio-visual or computer media, as opposed to conventional instruction; however, the same studies suggest that the reason for those benefits is not the medium of instruction, but the instructional strategies built into the learning materials. Similarly, Schramm (1977) suggested that learning is influenced more by the content and instructional strategy in the learning materials than by the type of technology used to deliver instruction.<br />According to Bonk and Reynolds (1997), to promote higher-order thinking on the Web, online learning must create challenging activities that enable learners to link new information to old, acquire meaningful knowledge, and use their metacognitive abilities; hence, it is the instructional strategy and not the technology that influences the quality of learning. Kozma (2001) argues that the particular attributes of the computer are needed to bring real-life models and simulations to the learner; thus, the medium does influence learning. However, it is not the computer per se that makes students learn, but the design of the real-life models and simulations, and the students' interaction with those models and simulations. The computer is merely the vehicle that provides the processing capability and delivers the instruction to learners (Clark, 2001). Kozma is correct in his claim, but learners will not learn from the simulations if the simulations are not developed using sound design principles.<br />Online learning allows for flexibility of access, from anywhere and usually at anytime—essentially, it allows participants to collapse time and space (Cole, 2000)—however, the learning materials must be designed properly to engage the learner and promote learning. According to Rossett (2002), online learning has many promises, but it takes commitment and resources, and it must be done right. “Doing it right” means that online learning materials must be designed properly, with the learners and learning in focus, and that adequate support must be provided. Ring and Mathieux (2002) suggest that online learning should have high authenticity (i.e., students should learn in the context of the workplace), high interactivity, and high collaboration. This paper discusses the foundation of educational theory for the design of effective online learning materials.<br />

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