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Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:
Clarifying inspirational motivation and its relationship to extra effort
Inspirational motivation, transformational leadership behaviour, is measured by the multifactor leadership questionnaire and represents the use of vision by leaders (Bass and Avolio, 1990). Vision is key leadership behaviour for gaining workforce support when organisations need to seize opportunities for growth and development (Conger, 1991). Inspirational motivation measures vision by recording the frequency with which leaders use symbols, metaphors, and simplified emotional appeals to increase awareness and understanding of mutually desired goals. Leaders use vision to encourage their followers to exert effort beyond the ordinary.
Bass (1985) identified inspirational motivation in his investigations of charismatic leadership. Several concepts were used to assist the theoretical development of inspirational motivation, and two key concepts were the management of meaning and action orientation. These concepts explain how leaders use mental images to evoke and portray an idealized future, and communicate challenging standards and positions on controversial issues. Leaders use mental images to focus the attention of their followers and thereby heighten followers’ motivation for the attainment of designated outcomes.
Inspirational motivation has been empirically linked to a range of outcomes such as extra effort, ethical behaviour, learning orientation, and project success (Banerji and Krishnan, 2000; Coad and Berry, 1998; Thite, 1999). Extra effort has important significance for the discriminant validity of inspirational motivation because this outcome has been used to confirm the “augmentation effect” of inspirational motivation (Waldman et al., 1990). This effect represents the unique variance in the ratings of performance, which is above and beyond that accounted for by transactional leadership. Several studies have also identified a high correlation between inspirational motivation and extra effort (Bass and Avolio, 1990; Hater and Bass, 1988; Howell and Avolio, 1993).
Emrich et al. (in press) recently examined presidential speeches in terms of rhetoric, charisma, and greatness, and identified two types of wording, namely image-based and concept-based by using the Martindale’s Regressive Imagery Dictionary (Martindale, 1969; 1975). Image-based wording is concrete and vivid (e.g. sweat, heart, and explore) while concept-based wording is abstract and pallid (e.g. alternative, commitment, and work). Specifically, image-based items use words such as “important purposes”, “develops way”,” encouraging talk”, and “symbols and images”. These words suggest leaders are creating vivid ideas, visions or images in the minds of followers. Concept-based items use words such as “standard”, “vision”, and “expectations”,. These words suggest leaders are communicating bottom-line goals or standards to followers.
This study provides support for two factors of inspirational motivation, namely image-based and concept-based inspirational motivation. Both factors are consistent with Bass’s (1985) original conceptualization and other independently identified aspects of vision. For example, image-based inspirational motivation is consistent with “sense-making communication” and meaning making language”, and concept-based inspirational motivation is consistent with “strategic vision” and “direction giving language” (Conger, 1991; Mayfield et al., 1988). However, a third aspect of visioning behaviours was not identified by this study, namely empathetic language, which according to Shamir et al. (1993), involves the reinforcement of collective identity. This aspect of vision also represents an expression of sharing and humane consideration, directed at building rapport, and interpersonal bonding by leaders (Sullivan, 1988).
A high correlation between factors of inspirational motivation was evident, which indicates a degree of empirical overlapping and is common among most transformational leadership factors (Lowe et al., 1996). Further clarification of the inspirational motivation sub-factors is required to clearly differentiate between the two factors by integrating the ideas of Conger (1991), Mayfield et al. (1998), and Sullivan (1988).
While the model identified both factors of inspirational motivation had positive relationships to extra effort, differences between the magnitude of direct effects were evident. Image-based inspirational motivation had double the direct effect on extra effort than concept-based inspirational motivation. This finding is consistent with Emrich et al.’s (in press) conclusion that image-based vision has greater impact than concept-based vision on followers. The higher direct effect of image-based inspirational motivation on extra effort may result from the capacity of this dimension of vision to address the motives, needs, and values of followers while further building on their self-concept (Bass and Avolio, 1993; Shamir et al.,1993). In practical terms, these findings indicate that leaders should differentiate between image-based and concept-based inspirational motivation factors. For example, leaders should consider using the image-based inspirational motivation more frequently to encourage extra effort from followers. Leaders can achieve this effect by painting verbal pictures for their followers which involve using image-lace words such as sweat; heart; frontier; imagine; and explore.
The new inspirational motivation factors assist in further clarifying this type of leadership behaviour from idealized influence (or charisma). Inspirational motivation should be considered as a vital component of transformational leadership to enable researches to study the language of leaders (Conger, 1991). The identification of two inspirational motivation factors raises the possibility that each may play a different role. For example, concept-based inspirational motivation may influence more long term outcomes while image-based inspirational motivation may be more short term in its effects. The difference in the direct effects of both inspirational motivation factors on extra effort raises questions about the augmentation capacity of inspirational motivation For example, does the lower direct effect of concept-based inspirational motivation mean a lower or reduced augmentation capacity? The current study provides foundations for future research to validate and advance the examination of inspirational motivation.
(Densten, I.L., (2002) “Clarifying inspirational motivation and its relation to extra effort’, Leadership and organisation development journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 1, pp. 40 – 44)
1.1 Explain the link between Transformational Leadership and Motivation. (10)
1.2 ‘Several studies have also identified a high correlation between inspirational motivation and
Extra effort. Discuss this statement based on the extract above. (15)
1.3 Discuss the effect inspirational motivation and extra effort has on the Expectancy Theory of
Write an evaluation essay on the managerial environments. Be sure to include relevant theories, relations and sub-topics. Your essay should be between two and four typed pages in length, inclusive of diagrams. (30)
Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:
Leading in the 21st century
It is often said that the principles of great leadership are timeless, or based on immutable truths. But when we meet with the men and women who run the world’s largest organisations, what we hear with increasing frequency, is how different everything feels from just a decade ago. Leaders tell us they are operating in a bewildering new environment in which little is certain, the tempo is quicker, and the dynamics are more complex. They worry that it is impossible for chief executives to stay on top of all the things they need to know to do their job. Some admit they feel overwhelmed. To understand the leadership challenge of our volatile, globalised, hyper-connected age more clearly, we recently initiated a series of structured interviews with the leaders of some of the world’s largest and most vibrant organisations.
All are grappling with today’s environment in different ways. But the common themes that emerged from these conversations – what it means to lead in an age of upheaval, to master personal challenges, to be in the limelight continually, to make decisions under extreme uncertainty – offer a useful starting point for understanding today’s leadership landscape. All reinforce our belief that today’s leaders face extraordinary new challenges and must learn to think differently about their role and how to fulfil it. Those who do may have an opportunity to change the world in ways their predecessors never imagined.
Decision making under uncertainty
This is the theme that states leaders must increasingly resist the temptation to cope with chaos and complexity by trusting their gut. At a time of extreme volatility, past experience is an unreliable guide to future outcomes. Leaders must create cultures of constructive scepticism and surround themselves with people who bring multiple perspectives and have no fear of challenging the boss.
If the burden of leadership in the modern age seems overwhelming, the potential benefits are overwhelming too. Large organisations – if led well – can do more for more people than they have at any other moment in history. That is the flip side of all the chaos, complexity, and pressure, and it makes leading through those challenges a noble endeavour.
(Adapted work of: Barton, D.,Grant, A., Horn, M., 2012, McKinsey Quarterly)
3.1 Highlight some of the changes organisations have faced over the last decade. How has leadership
Leadership theory adapted to these changes? Discuss. (15)
3.2 “At a time of extreme volatility, past experience is an unreliable guide to future outcomes.”
Discuss this statement in light of Conditions of Certainty, Risk, and Uncertainty. (15)
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